As far as maritime disasters go, few have garnered as much international attention and invoked as much horror as the Deepwater Horizon explosion. The catastrophic event, rooted in a failed offshore drilling operation in the Gulf of Mexico, highlights the perils of fossil fuel extraction and the true cost of corporate negligence.
The Cataclysmic Event
On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig, owned by Transocean and leased by BP, suffered a catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire. The origin of this deepwater disaster stemmed from a drill pipe deep within the Macondo Prospect, a prospect in the Mississippi Canyon, a section of the Gulf of Mexico.
The evening of April 20 was an ordinary one for the crew members aboard the Deepwater Horizon. Yet, in Deepwater Horizon’s final hours, beneath the ocean floor, a torrent of high-pressure methane gas started making its way up the drilling rig. This unstoppable force, also known as the “bladder effect”, journeyed up the drill column, breaching various safety barriers, including the final defense mechanism, the blowout preventer (BOP).
The BOP, a crucial safety device in offshore drilling operations, is meant to seal off the well in case of an uncontrollable surge of oil or gas. But on that fateful night, the BOP on the Deepwater Horizon failed to activate as expected. The surge of methane reached the rig, triggering a ferocious explosion that took the lives of 11 employees and led to one of the most significant environmental disasters in history.
Behind the Deepwater Horizon Tragedy
The rig was home to a crew of 126 men and women, including Mike Williams, the Chief Electronics Technician, and Andrea Fleytas, a dynamic and young crew member responsible for monitoring the rig’s safety systems. In the 2016 movie adaptation, Deepwater Horizon, Mark Wahlberg portrays Williams, while Gina Rodriguez plays Fleytas.
Mike Williams played an instrumental role during the disaster, despite the chaos and confusion that reigned after the explosion. Portrayed with intensity by Wahlberg, Williams’ real-life courage and quick thinking saved numerous lives on the rig, including Fleytas.
Andrea Fleytas, who was responsible for activating the general alarm, played an equally vital role in the sequence of these true events. Unfortunately, her decision not to activate the alarm immediately after the initial explosion was later criticized, with some claiming that her hesitation led to unnecessary delays in evacuation.
Other key personnel included Jimmy Harrell (played by Kurt Russell in the film), the respected offshore installation manager, and Donald Vidrine and Robert Kaluza, the two BP managers on the deepwater horizon oil rig who made critical decisions before the disaster. Vidrine, portrayed by a chilling John Malkovich, and Kaluza were later accused of ignoring crucial safety measures, including overlooking pressure readings that signaled problems with the cement job done by contractor Halliburton.
Another crew member, Caleb Holloway, played by Dylan O’Brien in the film, was one of the last crew members to abandon the rig and was also among the few who survived without serious physical injury. Holloway was one of the drillers injured the day the rig went up in flames.
The Aftermath: An Environmental Catastrophe
The toll of human life was not the only consequence of the explosion. For 87 days after the disaster, oil gushed unabated from the ruptured well, spewing an estimated 3.19 million barrels (134 million gallons) of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This oil spill, one of the worst in history, caused extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and to the Gulf’s fishing and tourism industries.
The states of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas were significantly affected. The oil spread over a vast expanse, polluting pristine beaches and rich fishing grounds, and decimating local economies that relied heavily on tourism and fishing. The aftermath of the spill is a stark reminder of the dangers associated with offshore drilling.
The Blame Game: Corporate Culpability
A New York Times article published in the aftermath of the explosion suggested that the blame lay squarely with BP, Transocean, and Halliburton. However, the legal battle and litigation was far from straightforward.
BP, as the leaseholder of the well and the entity overseeing the drilling operation, was initially the focus of the blame. But, investigations revealed that Transocean, as the owner of the rig, and Halliburton, the company contracted to cement the well, also shared responsibility for the disaster.
Donald Vidrine and Robert Kaluza, the BP executives aboard the rig, were charged with manslaughter for the deaths of the 11 workers. Shockingly, they pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge of violating the Clean Water Act and only received probation.
Transocean agreed to a settlement of $1.4 billion for violating the Clean Water Act, while Halliburton paid $1.1 billion into a fund to settle a substantial portion of legal claims against them. BP agreed to pay $18.7 billion, the largest corporate settlement in U.S. history, to settle all state and federal claims against them related to the spill.
The Deepwater Horizon Film: Art Imitates Life
In September 2016, director Peter Berg brought the tragedy of the Deepwater Horizon true story to the silver screen. The film, featuring a star-studded cast including Mark Wahlberg, Kate Hudson, John Malkovich, and Gina Rodriguez, sought to provide a dramatic representation of the events that transpired on that fateful April night.
Berg’s focus was less on the environmental disaster and more on the human story behind the explosion. He wanted to honor the lives lost and shine a light on the heroism exhibited by the crew in the face of unimaginable horror aboard the burning rig. The film also emphasized the corporate negligence of BP and the reckless decision-making that led to the disaster.
The Human Cost: Remembering the Lives Lost
The Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in the tragic loss of 11 crew members. These individuals were fathers, husbands, brothers, and sons whose lives were abruptly and tragically cut short. The following crew members lost their lives that fateful day:
- Jason Anderson
- Aaron Dale Burkeen
- Donald Clark
- Stephen Ray Curtis
- Gordon Lewis Jones
- Roy Wyatt Kemp
- Karl Kleppinger Jr.
- Keith Blair Manuel
- Dewey A. Revette
- Shane Roshto
- Adam Weise
The Aftermath and Recovery
Following the disaster, the Gulf of Mexico faced an unprecedented environmental crisis. The spill had a devastating impact on wildlife, marine ecosystems, and local economies. The clean-up operation involved hundreds of vessels and thousands of people, including local fishermen, volunteers, and emergency response teams.
Even years after the incident, the environmental toll of the oil spill is still visible. The regions affected by the spill continue to grapple with the disaster’s long-term consequences, from the death of marine wildlife to a significant decrease in the fish population, impacting the livelihood of local fishermen. Meanwhile, the legal fallout continues. Survivors filed multiple lawsuits were filed against BP, Transocean, and Halliburton, with settlements reaching billions of dollars.
Deepwater Horizon brings the disastrous event and its human cost to life. It successfully depicts the heroism, courage, and self-sacrifice of the crew, honoring their memory. Yet, as with any Hollywood adaptation, some elements were dramatized for cinematic effect.
While the movie portrays the explosion’s horror and the crew’s struggle for survival, it doesn’t fully encapsulate the disaster’s long-term environmental, economic, and psychological impact. Nor does it delve into the criminal probe or corporate finger-pointing that followed the explosion.
The Deepwater Horizon story will be remembered not just as a tale of disaster but as a catalyst for change. Despite the somber subject matter, the film managed to find a substantial audience. On a production budget of approximately $110 million, the movie grossed over $121 million worldwide.